Sean Waite, McGill University
Does it Get Better? A Quasi-cohort Analysis of Sexual Minority Wage Gaps.
Nicole Denier and Sean Waite, McGill University
Gay pay in Canadian Cities: Local labour market effects on sexual minority earnings gaps
Iris Hoiting, University of Alberta
Families in Flux: Exploring the Relationship between Family Structure and Deviancy
S. Tian, University of Toronto
Place of Education and Immigrants’ Economic Integration: The Role of Social Resources
Naoka Hawkins, University of Toronto
Immigrant Status and the Relationship Between Education and Health: Exploring the Role of Psychosocial and Economic Resources
Lisa Kaida, University of Toronto
Pathways to Economic Mobility for Immigrants in “Bad” Jobs
Alyson van Raalte (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research). Lifespan
Inequality: A Study Of Five Countries And Four Measures.
Lisa Kaida, Melissa Moyser, and Stella Y. Park, University of Toronto
Living Alone, or Living with Family?: Ethnic Variations in the
Living Arrangements of Elderly Canadians.
Yimin (Gloria) Lou, University of Western Ontario
What Happens to the ‘Healthy Immigrant Effect’: The Mental Health of Immigrants to Canada
Jianye Liu , Sociology, University of Western Ontario
Children's Schooling in Vietnam: Does Gender Matter?
Ann H. Kim, Sociology, Brown University
Determinants of international migration flows
There has been a shift in the national origins of immigrants to Canada and this can partly be explained by policy changes such as the abolition of the restrictionist immigration policy in 1962. However, for the current period, immigration is more likely to be a function of the social, economic and political relations between sending and receiving countries. Presently, Canada receives international migrants from over 100 sending countries and the volume from each country varies from year to year. It is important to understand the contemporary context underlying population movement for two main reasons: to understand the kinds of conditions which lead to changes in flows, and to anticipate future migration streams. This study examines how conditions in sending countries impact on the flows of immigrants to Canada from 1986 to 1996, based on multivariate analysis conducted using data compiled from a number of sources. The results are expected to improve our understanding of how international relations and national deveopment shape immigration to Canada.
Ron Budinski, University of Alberta
Cohabitation in Canada: Stability of Cohabiting Relationships and the Effect of Cohabitation on Marital Unions
Cohabitation as a form of nuptiality has enjoyed widespread growth and popularity in recent decades, while at the same time marriage rates have declined and divorce rates increased. Much of the research on cohabitation has focused on the stability of cohabiting relationships, and how premarital cohabitation may affect the stability of marriages. This study asks the following questions: (1) is cohabitation only meant to be a temporary union, leading cohabitors into marriage or back into singlehood? and (2) is premarital cohabitation associated with marital instability, and in what way? Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey, Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the stability of cohabitations without subsequent marriage, cohabitations with subsequent marriage, and marriages not preceded by cohabitation. Results generally support previous findings that cohabitation is a short-lived state, and most cohabitors experience a transition either into marriage or back to singlehood within a short time. Cohabitors who choose to marry tend to have more unstable marriages than non-cohabitors, but only after ten years into the marriage. Prior to that time, there is no difference in marital stability between cohabitors and non-cohabitors.
D. Walter R. Omariba, University of Western Ontario
Child Morbidity in Kenya: Does Women's Status Matter?
Recent data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 1998, collected within the framework of broader demographic and health surveys for developing countries at Micro International of USA, shows that child mortality in Kenya increased by 24% over the decade. This paper utilises logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's status measured by education level, occupation, household income, household environmental conditions, place of residence, and marital status and child morbidity which is measured by incidence of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea among children under three years, two weeks preceding the survey. The study is premised on the assumption that children's exposure to sickness is conditioned by social, economic, and environmental factors which will be captured by mothers' status. Since children who die are more likely to have been sick than not, this study's importance lies in the contribution it will make in identifying those most at risk of sickness and therefore death, and whom interventionist programmes should target.
Alison Yacyshyn, Sociology, University of Alberta
Housing Alberta's Seniors
Housing of Alberta's seniors aged 55+ is addressed on the basis of population projections and data from the 1991 and 1996 censuses, including collective dwelling data. The fields of demography, ageing, and housing are relevant to understanding elderly housing. The availability of the data relevant to this area of focus is also assessed. Using applied demographic techniques, the results of the research contributes to an understanding of Alberta's aging population and to a projection of future housing usage. The research also has social policy implications. The projection results suggest that the majority of the elderly Albertans in 2016 will reside in single detached houses. Grants for home repair and the increasing demand for home care are relevant policy issues. Housing projections by type can address the expected needs of specified age groups across the later stages of the life course.
Juhee Suwal, Sociology, University of Alberta
Determinants of Infant Mortality in Nepal
Infant mortality is a sensitive human development indicator of a nation. Infant mortality has reached a stable low rate in developed countries while it is still high and on a slow decline in developing countries. There are many factors which contribute to the incidence of a high or low level of infant mortality. Although credit for contributing to the lowering of infant mortality has been given to health programs by public health personnel and to the improvement in socio-economic status by social scientists, in a traditional and agricultural country like Nepal, both these factors are found to influence infant mortality. Data on infant mortality obtained by the 1991 Demographic Health Survey of Nepal are analysed in this study. A logistic regression model is used for analysing the data. Several hypotheses are set up to explain the incidence of infant mortality in Nepal. All the hypotheses are supported. The various reasons for the persistence of high infant mortality and the difficulties in lowering it are discussed. The findings suggest that among all the variables analysed in the study, parity, residence, immunization, and ethnicity influence infant mortality the most.
Michael S. Pollard (& Zheng Wu), University of Victoria
Divergence of Quebec/Non-Quebec Marriage Patterns
Within the last 20 years the declines in marriage rates and marriage prevalence have been significantly greater for Quebec than the rest of Canada. This analysis examines the divergence of Canadian marriage patterns using ideational theory, which suggests that region itself, as a proxy for cultural settings and normative code, will be a significant determinant in the marriage process. The data were drawn from the 1995 General Social Survey (n=5,902 women). The effects of economic factors, in addition to region and other cultural markers, are examined using discrete-time event-history methods. The findings suggest that factors identified by standard economic models are insufficient in an explanation of the regional differentials. There was little decline in the effect of region after controlling for a wide range of background and other characteristics. Further analysis indicates that unmarried Quebec women place less importance on marriage, but greater importance on lasting relationships, than other unmarried Canadian women, highlighting the role of cohabitation in Canadian union formation.
Junjie Zhang (& Rod Beaujot), University of Western Ontario
Determinants of Re-Employment Probability in Canada: Competing Risks Analyses between Full-Time and Part-Time Employment
Longitudinal Data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics 1992-1993 are used to test the hypotheses that marital status and presence of young children are important factors in determining the re-employment probability of the jobless. The full-time employment and part-time employment are treated as competing risks. Double-Decrement life table and simultaneous competing-risks model results indicate that, married men have higher probability of re-employment, while the divorced women have much lower probability of re-employment. The women with young children are found less likely to enter full-time employment but more likely to work part-time. Additionally, immigrant women, older men and minority men are identified as disadvantaged groups in the labour market.
Zongli Tang, University of Alberta
Minority Status and Chinese Fertility in Canada
A dominant approach in the literature on minority group fertility is the minority-status hypothesis. However, this hypothesis does not obtain clear support from most empirical tests. This study is unique in three important ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings minorities not only social-psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which could be measured by Chinese husbands' relative economic status.
Second, the emphasis of this study is put on empirical analysis of fertility differentials between Chinese and British persons at the level of social class, which has been ignored by previous studies. Third, discrimination effects will be utilized to analyze fertility behaviour at all class levels within a minority group.
L. Odhiambo Omwanda (& Feng Hou), University of Western Ontario
Multilevel Analysis of the Interconnection Between Divorce and Female Labour Force Participation in Canada, 1931-1991
We investigated the causal order between women's employment and divorce in Canada from 1931-1991 using the Granger-Hsiao test. Simultaneous autoregressive estimates showed that increased employment of women causally influenced the divorce rate before 1969; after that, the direction of causality reversed. Hazard model estimates based on survey data confirmed the time series results and, additionally, showed that women's employment significantly predicted the risk of divorce only among women married before 1969 and who worked without interruption. Logit estimates indicated that, compared to women who did not experience marital disruption, divorced and separated women had higher odds of being employed; those who remarried were less likely to be employed.